Mikkel Aaland

"It's All An Adventure"

Illustration Credits

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Sources for the illustrations in this book are shown below. [Note: Page numbers correspond to pages in the original 1978 book.]


All photographs, unless otherwise credited, are by Mikkel Aaland. 11—Nancy Looker. 32—Tony Vian. 33—Mary O’Neil. 34,35—Encyclopedia Britannica. 40-from The Beauties of the Bosphorus. 44,45-from Tableau general de l’Empire Othoman. 46–from Notes Relating to the Crim Tartars, 156-advertisement in Collier’s Weekly. 58,59—Albrecht Dürer. 60,61—from Deutsches Badewesen in vergangenen Tagen by Alfred Martin, 1906. 62,63-Badenfahrt, by Thomas Murner, 1514. 72,74-National Museum of Finland. 76Finnish Sauna Society. 8 1-National Museum of Finland. 84,85-Helsinki City Museum. 86,87-Finnish Military Museum. 91-Kenya Information Services. 103—Nancy Looker. 106—Tony Vian. l 14, 1 15—from Zur Geschichte und Folklore der Grossrussischen Sauna, redrawn by Tony Vian. l 16—Nancy Looker. 122— photo from Finnish National Museum, redrawn by Tony Vian. 126, 127–from Sauna by Martti Vuoren juuri. 129–Esko Ruokonen. 128-129–Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 132-from The Ancient Irish Hot-air Bath, Seaton Milligan. 134-Alfred J. Swann. 136-Kiyo Nagaseicho. 138-from Hot Springs in Japan. 142 top–from Reise um die erde nach Japan. . . . 142 bottom, 143-from Toyo Mokuyoku Shiwa. 144, 145 from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs. 146 from Toyo Mokuyoku Shiwa. 155-Smithsonian Institution. 163-Smithsonian Institution. 165-Nancy Looker. 166, 167-Bureau of Indian Affairs. 170 top-Diane Martin. 170 bottom-Smithsonian Institution. 173-Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. 172-from Tribes of California. 175 Smithsonian Institution. 176-University Museum Bulletin, Philadelphia, Pa. 183-from Life in a Mexican Village. 190, 196—Mary O’Neil. 197,203,204—Mot Hori. 205, 21 1,213–-Mary O’Neil. 216, 218 lower rt— Mot Hori. 226,227,228—Mary O’Neil.


Text Credits


Excerpts from “The Bath,” by Gary Snyder, TURTLE ISLAND. Copyright (c) 1974 by Gary Snyder. Reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corporation, p. 2–excerpts from Sauna by H. J. Viherjuuri, p. 11-excerpt from Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology of Siva by Wendy O’Flaherty; The Psychology of Fire by Donald Scott; The Bright and Glowing Place by Frank Rowsone; and Shamanism-Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy trans. by Wm. Trask; on pp. 15-16-excerpts from The Finnish Sauna by John Virtanen, p.77–excerpts from Zur Geschichte und Folklore der Grossrussischen Sauna, by Igor Vahros, p. 121-excerpts from Sauna Kautta Aikojen, by Martti Vuorenjuuri, pp. 123, 124, 125, 130-excerpts from Toyo Mokuyoku Shiwa (East West Bathing), by Koichi Fujinami, pp. 143, 147.(Other excerpts are given in the text where they appear.).




The following people were translators, guides or consultants. Some even fed, boarded and bathed me.


In the United States:


California-Noriko Abe, Japanese; June Bartlett, Swedish; Gordon Clark, photography; Tim Gregory, medical; Greg Hasting, photography; Robert Jones, President, Viking Sauna; Professor Albert P. Krueger, M. D., L. L. D., Emeritus Professor of Bacteriology, University of California, Berkeley; Reverend Haruyoski Kusada, Japanese; Professor Larry Silver, Art History, University of California, Berkeley; Richard Cooper, Arabic; Henry Untermeyer, Golden Gate Spa Products; Bill Owens, author; Ute Hesse, German; Paul Persons; Robert Wilkinson; Joan Wilkinson; Erik, Hans and Beth Aaland; Joel Leonard, librarian, California State University, Chico; Dolores Blalock, Center for Information and Communication Studies, C.S.U., Chico; Charles Field; Barry Marshall; Susan Hartman; Aune and Orvo Hendrickson; Masako Hamada, Japanese; Members of the Walnut House, a housing collective; Professor Wendy O’Flaherty, Department of South Asian Studies, U. C., Berkeley; John Warne, U. C., Berkeley; Suzanne Arms, author; Penny Hansen, German


Arizona-Dan Forey; Steven Bloxham; Dave Charlie, Phoenix Indian Center; Daniel Peaches, Arizona State Representative


Minnesota-Professor Matti Kaups, University of Minnesota, Department of Geography; Michael Karni; Sylvia Frank; Alex Kyyhkynen, former Finnish Consul, Duluth; Ed Dorma, Custom Enterprise.


Vermont-Stephen, Stephanie and Janet Greene.


South Dakota-Herbert T. Hoover, Professor of History, University of South Dakota.




Finland-Irmeli Viherjuuri, tottakai, Marie Walden, Foreign Ministry Press Secretary; Ergun Sav, Turkish Consulate, Helsinki; Professor Niilo Teeri, President Kastor o.y.; Timo Pääkkönen, Sauna Society; Ora Patoharju, Environment Control Panner, Helsinki; Tärja Ruokenen, Finnish; Esko Ruokenen; Dan Liebkind, President, Helo Factories; Professor Gunnar Graeffe, Tampere University of Technology; Esko Hamalainen, product manager, Instrumentarium; Professor Harold Teir, President, Finnish Sauna Society; Captain Karlssen, United Nations; Professor Igor Vahors, PhD, Helsinki University; Anneli Ilmonen, Tampere Art Museum; Pentti O. Honkanen, Director, Tampere Swimming Hall; Eva and Affe Janikova/Pakaslahti; Pirkko Valtakari, Sauna Society; Irmeli Nyholm, Sauna Society; Juhannes Runerberg, photography


Cyprus-Commander Pullinen, FINCON; Captain Leif G. Forsblom, FINCON; Lieutenant Juha Vesalainen, FINCON.


Turkey-Sedat Tolga, Governer, Bursa; Ali Bilir, Bursa Tourist Guide; Professor Dr. Dogan Kuban, dean, Istanbul Technical University; Timo Orenius, Secretary, Finnish Embassy, Ankara.


Germany-Dr. Werner Fritzsche, President, German Sauna Society; Detlief Kamminer, author; Alfred Hartman, author


Mexico-Brian Holmes and Susan Bernstein; William Swezey, Universidad de las Americas, Puebla.


England-Nancy Jo Budd.


Japan–Robert Olkin; Michko Abe; Shigeto Saitou, President, Japanese Sauna Party.




Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington, D.C.; Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York; General Library, University of California, Berkeley; The General Library Photographic Service, University of California, Berkeley; San Francisco Historical Society; General Library, California State University, Chico; Finnish National Museum, Helsinki; Helsinki University Library; Pohjoismainen Antique Bookstore, Helsinki; Finnish Military Archives, Helsinki; Helsinki City Museum; Istanbul University Library; Istanbul Technical University Library, Istanbul; Bosporus University Library, Istanbul; Royal Library, Copenhagen; Royal Library, Stockholm; National Museum, Stockholm; National Library, Paris; British Museum, London.







Blegborough, Ralph, Facts and Observations respecting the Air-Pump Vapour-Bath in Gout, Rheumatism, Pals and other Diseases. London, 1803.


Curman, Carl, Om Bad. Stockholm, 1871.


Fritzsche, Werner:


–Sauna von A bis Z. Weidach, 1974.


–(ed.) Sauna Archiv. German Sauna Society, Bielefeld in Westfalen.


Fujinami, Koichi, Toyo Mokuyoku Shiwa (East West Bathing). Kyoto, 1931. (2nd ed. 1944).


Giedion, Siegfried, Mechanization takes command, a contribution to anonymous history. New York, 1948.


Hartmann, Alfred, Badereise Durch Fünf Jahrtausende. Mainz-Gonsenheim, 1969.


Johnson, Tom & Miller, Tim. The Sauna Book. New York, 1977.


Kammeier, Detlef, Das Grosse Sauna Buch. Munich, 1972.


Kentish, Edward, Essay on Warm and Vapour Baths . London, 1813.


Limbourg, Jean-Philippe. Dissertation sur les bains d’eauvsimple . . . Liege, 1757.


Lopatin, Ivan A., Origin of the Native American Steam Bath. American Anthropologist 62, 1960.


Olin, S. C., Sauna-the way to health. New York Mills, Minn., 1963.


Reynolds, Reginald, Cleanliness and Godliness. New York, 1946.


Sauna Studies. Papers read at the VI International Sauna Congress in Helsinki. Published by Sauna Seura, Helsinki, 1976. (This book can be obtained from the Finnish Sauna Society.)


Scott, G. R., The story of baths and bathing. London, 1939.


Talve, Ilmar, Bastu och torkhus i Nordeuropa. Stockholm, 1960.


Valtakari, Pirkko (ed.), Sauna. Helsinki, 1975-78.


Viherjuuri, H.J.:


–Saunakirja. Helsinki, 1941.


–Finn-Bastu. Abo, 1941.


–Sauna the Finnish Bath. Helsinki, 1952.


–Sauna the Finnish Bath. (American edition.) Brattleboro, Vermont, 1965.


Virtanen, John O. The Finnish Sauna. Portland, 1974.


Vuorenjuuri, Martti, Sauna Kautta Aikojen. Helsinki, 1966.


Wright, Lawrence, Clean and decent. London, 1960.




Airola, Paavo O., Health Secrets from Europe. New York, 1972.


Fritzsche, Werner:


–Sauna von A bis Z. Weidach, 1974. (This concise book can be purchased from Sauna-Verlag,8631 Weidachb. Coburg, Neuseser Weg 17, Germany. Text in German.)


–Die wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen des Saunabades. (The essential scientific information of the sauna.) Vol. XII, 1974. (This report may be obtained from the German Sauna Society. German text contains a complete bibliography of sauna studies around the world.)


Hasan, Jeddi, et al, Physiological Effects of Extreme Heat as studied in the Finnish Sauna Bath. Amer. Journal of Physical Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 6 and Vol. 46, No. 2, 1966 and 1967.


Hullemann, Klaus D., Matthew, D., Comparative Telemetric Measurements on Heart Attack Patients and Normal Persons in the Sauna. Helsinki, 1977.


Ihalainen, Olli, et al, Psychic Factors in Sauna Bath Habits. Psychiatria Fennica, 1972.


Kuno, Yas, Human Perspiration. Springfield, Ill., 1956.


Sauna Baths Used to Take Kidney’s Role. Report read to the 1966 convention of the American Society for Artificial Organs by Dr. Donald Snyder.


Soyka, Fred, The Ion Effect. New York, 1977. (The book a lay reader interested in the subject should read first. For further material relating to ions and saunas refer to Sauna Studies.)


Sunderman, F. Wm., etal, Excretion of Copper in Sweat of Patients with Wilson’s Disease during Sauna Bathing. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, Vol. 4, No. 5, 1974.


Hohnadel, David C., etal, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry of Nickel, Copper, Zinc, and Lead in Sweat Collected from Healthy Subjects. During Sauna Bathing. Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 11, 1973. (This and the preceding report can be obtained from David Hohnadel, University of Connecticut Health Center, PO Box G, Farmington, Conn. 06032.)


Van Gennep, Arnold, The Rites of Passage. University of Chicago Press, 1960.




Allom, Thomas, Constantinople and the Scenery of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor. London, 1838.


Artamonov, M. I., Frozen Tombs of the Scythians. Scientific American, Vol. 212, No. 5, 1965.


Blouet, A., Restauration des thermes d’Antonin Caracalla a Rome. Paris, 1828.


Burton, Richard F., The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. Burton Club, 1885-86.


Cosgrove, J. J., Design of the Turkish Bath. Pittsburgh, Pa., 1913.


Dallaway, James. Constantinople Ancient and Modern. London, 1797.


Forbes, R.J., Studies in ancient technology. Vol. VI, Leiden, 1958.


Gerhard, W. Paul: Modern baths and bathhouses. New York, 1908. A Paper read on May 12, 1914 at the Annual Meeting of the American Ass’n for Promoting Hygiene and Public Baths.


Ginoves, Rene, Balaneutike, recherches sur le bain dans d’Antiquite grecque. Paris, 1962.


Grotzfeld, Heinz. Das Bad im Arabisch. Wiesbaden, 1970.


Holderness, Mary. Notes Relating the Crim Tartars. London, 1823.


Jones, George Matthew, Travels in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Turkey. London, 1827.


Kai Ka’us Ibn Iskandar. A Mirror for Princes. Translated from the Persian by Reuben Levy. London, 1951.


Klinghardt, Karl, Turkische Bader. Stuttgart, 1927.


Lane, Edward, Wm, Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. London, 1954.


Montague, Mary Wortley. Letters from Lady Wortley Montague. London, 1906.


Mouradgea d’Ohsson, Ignatius. Tableau general de l’Empire Othoman. Paris, 1787.


Mayor’s Committee. Report on Public Baths and Comfort Stations. 1897.


Pardoe, Miss., The Beauties of the Bosphorus. London, 1839.


Pococke, Richard. Description of the East and other countries. London, 1743.


Rawlinsons, George, History of Herodotus. London, 1862.


Recollections of the late Dr. Barter. Dublin, 1875.


Thacheray, William Makepeace. Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo. London, 1907.


The Illustrated London News. The Hammam, Turkish Bath. July 26, 1862.


Twain, Mark, The Innocents Abroad. New York, 1964.


Unsal, Behcet. Turkish Islamic Architecture in Seljuk and Ottoman times. London, 1959.


Urquhart, David. The Pillars of Hercules. London, 1850.




Martin, Alfred, Deutsches Badewesen in vergangenen Tagen. Jena, 1906.


Mullet, Charles F., Public Baths and health in England, 16th-18th centuries. Suppl. to Bulletin of the History of Medicine, No. 5, Baltimore, 1946.


Murner, Thomas, Badenfahrt. Strassburg, 1887.


Tyler, William R., Dijon and the Valois Dukes of Burgundy. University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.




Aaltonen, Esko, On the Sociology of the Sauna of the Finnish Countryside. Westermarck Society II. Abo, 1953.


Acerbi, Guiseppe. Travels through Sweden, Finland and Lapland to the North Cape, 1798-99. London, 1802.


Du Chaillu, Paul B., The Land of the Midnight Sun. London, 1899.


Tohnson, Amandus, Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. New York, 1911.


Karni, Michael and Levin, Robert, Northwoods Vernacular Architecture and Finnish Log Buildings in Minnesota, Northwest Architect. May-June, 1972.


Karni, Michael G., Honey-heat and Healing Vapors. Northwest Architect, March-April, 1973.


Kivi, Aleksis, Seven Brothers. Translated by Alex Matson. New York, 1962.


Olaus, Magnus:


– Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus. Romae, 1555


–Historia om de nordiska folken. Uppsala, 1963


Rae, Edward,, The Land of the North Wind. London 1875


Scheid, Klaus. Sauna. Munchen, 1962.




Atkinson, John Augustus and Walker, James, A picturesque representation of the manners, customs, and amusements of the Russians. Vol. III, London, 1804.


Boyd, Louise A., Polish Countrysides. New York, 1937.


Carr, John, A Northern Summer. London, 1805.


Coxe, William, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. London, 1784.


d’Auteroche, L’Abbe Chappe, Voyage en Siberie fait parordre du roi en 1761. Paris, 1768.


Jones, George Matthew, Travels in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and Turkey. London, 1827.


Kohl, J. G., Petersburg in Bildern und Skizzen. Dresden and Leipzig, 1841.


Marchioness of Londonderry. The Russian Journals of Martha and Catherine Wilmot. London, 1934.


Olearius, Adam, Travels of the ambassadors from the Duke of Holstein into Moscovy, Tartary and Persia. London, 1705.


Porter, Robert Ker, Travelling Sketches in Russia and Sweden during the years 1805-08. London, 1809.


Rechberg, Les peuples de la Russie. Paris, 1812.


Russian Decorative Art. Vol. 3, Moscow, 1963.


Schaffgotsch, Xavier Graf, Das Russische Dampfbad. Ciba Symposium, Band 12, Helft 2, 1964.


Tooke, William, View of the Russian Empire during the reign of Catharine the Second. London, 1799.


Vahros, Igor, Zur Geschichte und Folklore der Grossrusstschen Sauna. Helsinki, 1966.


Visscher, Claes Jansen. Carte du Russe. Paris, 1694.




Claridge, G. Cyril, Wild Bush Tribes of Tropical Africa London, 1922.


Harley, George Way, Native African Medicine. Cambridge, Mass. 1941.


Junod, Henri A., Life of a South African Tribe, London 1927.


Latimer, W. T., Sweat-house near English County Tyrone Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, XXIV. Dublin, 1894.


Milligan, Seaton F., Ancient Irish Hot-Air Bath. Journal of Royal Historical Association of Ireland IX, Dublin, 1889.


Mulcahy, D. B., An Ancient Irish Hot-Air Bath. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland XXI, Dublin, 1892.


Park, Mungo, Travels and Recent Discoveries in the Interior Districts of Africa in 1796-97. New York, 1803.




Fujinami, Koichi, Hot Springs in Japan. Tokyo, 1936.


Heine, Wilhelm. Reise um die erde nach Japan an bord der expeditionsescadre unter commodor M. C. Perry in den Jahren 1853-55.


Silver, J. M. W., Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs. London, 1867.




Alexander, Hartley Burr, The World’s Rim, Great Mysteries of the North American Indians. U. of Nebraska Press, 1967.


Baumgarten, Siegmund Jacof. Algemeine Geschichte der Lander und Volker von America. Teil I. Halle, 1752.


Birket-Smith, Kaj:


– The Eskimos. London, 1936.


–The Caribou Eskimos Material and Social Life. Copenhagen, 1929.


Brown, Joseph Epes, The Sacred Pipe, Black Elk’s Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux. U. of Oklahoma Press, 1953.


Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 30, 1910.


Cartwright, Willena D. The Peyote Cult. Dept. of Indian Affairs Art Leaflet 105. Denver Art Museum, 1950.


Carver, J., Travels through the interior parts of North American in 1766-68. London, 178l.


Catlin, George, Illustrations of the manners, customs, and conditions of the North American Indians. Vol. I.5, London 1845.


Clavigero, Francesco Saverio. The History of Mexico. Vol. I, London, 1787.


Codex Magliabecchiano XIII.3. Manuscript Mexican Post-Columbien. National Library, Florence. Rome, 1904.


Cresson, Frank M., Maya and Mexican Sweat Houses. American Anthropologist, Vol. 40, 1938.


Driver, Harold E. and Massey, Wm C., Comparative studies of North American Indians. Amer. Philosophical Society, Vol. 47. Phila., Pa., 1957.


Dudley, Paul, An account of an extraordinary cure by sweating in hot turff. Philosophical Transactions, Vol. XXXIII, London, 1724.


Duran, Fray Diego de, Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme. Manuscript 1500. Meksiko, 1880.


Forbes, Alexander, California, a history of upper and lower California, 1778-1862. San Francisco, 1919.


Franciscan Fathers, An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language. Saint Michaels, Arizona, 1968.


Giddings, J. Louis. Ancient Men of the Arctic. New York,1967.


Heizer and Whipple, M. A., California Indians, a source book. University of California Press, 1951.


Kiddern, Alfred and Shook, Edwin M., A Unique Ancient Maya Sweathouse, Guatemala. Hamburg, 1959.


Lantis, Margaret, Alaskan Eskimo Ceremonialism. American Ethnological Society, 1947.


Laubin, Reginald and Gladys. The Indian Tipi. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.


Legends Told by the Old People. B. C., Canada, 1972.


Lewis, Oscar, Life in a Mexican Village-Tepoztlan Restudied. University of Illinois Press, 1951.


Lewis, T. M. The Cherokee “Hothouse” Tennessee Archaeologist IX, Knoxville, 1953.


Mason, J. Alden, Mexican and Mayan sweat-baths. University Museum Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 2. Phila, Pa. 1935.


Nelson, Edward Wm., The Eskimo about Bering Strait.New York, 1971.


Oswalt, Wendel H., Alaskan Eskimos. Scranton, Pa.,1967.


Powers, Stephen, Tribes of California. Washington, D. C., 1877.


Rasmussen, Knud, Across Arctic America. New York London, 1927.


Ruppert, K. Chichen Itza, Architectural notes and plans. Carnegie Institution, Publication 55. Washington, D.C., 1952.


Sahagun, Bernardino de, Histoire generale des choses dela Nouvelle-Espagne. Paris, 1880.


Vogt, Evon Z. Zinacantan, A Maya Community in the Highlands of Chiapas. Cambridge, Mass., 1969.


Williams, Roger, A Key into the Language of America (1643) Rhode Island Historical Society Collections, Vol. 1, 1827.




Reinikainen, A., Sauna. Helsinki, 1977.


Spliedt, Manfred, Badstue hjemme. Oslo, 1972.


Visanti, Irmeli, Saunakirja. Helsinki, 1975.


Wallgren, Birgitta, Bygge Badstue. Oslo, 1971.




Effect of the Thermal Stress of the Finnish Sauna and the Psychic Stress of Examination on Human Growth Hormone, Immunoreactive Insulin, Aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity, and Vanilmandelic Acid. Syvalahti, Erkka, Lammintausta, Risto, et al. Sauna Studies 1976.


Use of the Sauna by Finnish Athletes, Ilkka Vuori, Sauna Studies, 1976.


The Sauna and Sport, E. J. Wijburg, ibid.


The Incorporation of the Sauna in Sports Facilities in Czechoslovakia, Antonin Mikolasek, ibid.


Sauna and Physiological Sleep: Increased Slow-Wave Sleep after Heat Exposure. P. T. S. Putkonen and E. Elomaa, ibid.


Examinations and Observations on Healthy Children during the Sauna Bathing Process, Werner Fritzsche, ibid.


Sauna Methods where Children are Involved, Antonin Mikolasek, ibid.


Return to the Sweat home page, here.




The Illustrated History and Description of the Finnish Sauna, Russian Bania, Islamic Hammam, Japanese Mushi-Buro, Mexican Temescal, and American Indian & Eskimo Sweatlodge


by Mikkel Aaland

©1978 & 2018 All Rights Reserved




©2024 Mikkel Aaland

All Rights Reserved